Special Anti-Robbery Squad

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Special Anti-Robbery Squad
Agency overview
Dissolved11 October 2020
Jurisdictional structure
Operations jurisdictionNigeria
Nigeria sm02.gif
Size923,768 km2
Population206 million
Governing bodyMinistry of Police Affairs
Constituting instruments
  • Section 214 of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (as amended)
  • Nigeria Police Act 2020
General nature
Operational structure
HeadquartersLouis Edet House, Abuja

The Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS) was a Nigerian Police Force unit created in late 1992 to deal with crimes associated with robbery, motor vehicle theft, kidnapping, cattle rustling, and firearms. It was part of the Force Criminal Investigation and Intelligence Department (FCIID), headed by Deputy Inspector General of Police Anthony Ogbizi.[1]

SARS was controversial for its links to extrajudicial killings, forced disappearances, extortion, torture, framing, blackmail, kidnapping, illegal organ trade, armed robbery, home invasions, rape of men and women, child arrests, the invasion of privacy, and polluting bodies of water by illegally disposing of human remains. After widespread protests in Nigeria and worldwide under the motto "End SARS",[2][3] the unit was disbanded on 11 October 2020. Inspector General of Police M.A. Adamu said that a new unit, the Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT), would replace the SARS.[4] He said that SARS personnel would report to police headquarters for debriefing and examination. Within hours of the announcement, some Nigerians took to Twitter with the hashtag #EndSWAT,[5] and demonstrations continued amid fears that police reform would not materialize.[6]


The Special Anti-Robbery Squad was founded in late 1992 by former police commissioner Simeon Danladi Midenda. The incident that spurred SARS' formation[according to whom?] was Col. Rindam (Nigerian Army) death at the hands of police officers at a checkpoint in Lagos on September 1992, later leading to the arrest of three police officers.[7] When the information reached the army, soldiers were dispatched into the streets of Lagos in search of any and all police officers. The Nigerian police withdrew from checkpoints, security areas, and other points of interest for criminals; some police officers were said to have resigned while others fled for their lives. Due to the absence of police for two weeks, the crime rate increased and SARS was formed with an initial force of 15, operating in secrecy to avoid the army. Due to the existence of three already established anti-robbery squads that were operational at that time, Midenda needed to distinguish his squad from the already existing teams. Midenda named his team Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS). After months of dialogue[when?] the Nigerian Army and the Nigeria Police Force came to an understanding, and official police duties resumed in Lagos. The SARS unit was officially commissioned[when?] in Lagos following the subsequent ceasefire.[citation needed]

SARS was one of the 14 units in the Force Criminal Investigation and Intelligence Department, which was established to detain, investigate, and prosecute those involved in violent crimes such as armed robbery and kidnapping.[citation needed][8]


In mid-1996, the SARS Lagos branch arrested two security guards at their place of work under suspicion of assisting in a robbery. The two guards were not charged with a crime when arrested. In January 1997, the bodies of the guards were placed at a morgue without an explanation for their deaths.[9]

In October 2005, a SARS operative killed a bus driver in Obiaruku, Delta State, for failing to pay a bribe. The operative was removed from their SARS position and arrested on charges of murder.[10]

In 2009, after several years of operations, the squad grew in number and strength. Due to the increased presence of internet fraudsters and secret societies in Nigerian universities, SARS operatives infiltrated them and made several successful arrests, but in the process harassed innocent people.

What SARS became was a national scourge that witch-hunt machinery against Nigerian youth with dreadlocks, piercings, cars, expensive phones and risque means of expression.

¡ª Motoani Alake, "#EndSARS: What exactly is the status of SARS?", pulse.ng (23 January 2019)[11]

In May 2010, Amnesty International disclosed that it would be suing the Nigerian Police over human rights abuses, stating that SARS operatives in Borokiri, Port Harcourt, had arrested three bicyclists and detained them for over one week while they were "beaten every night with the butt of a gun and iron belt."[12] On 20 May 2010, a Federal High Court in Enugu State ordered the then-Inspector General of Police Ogbonna Okechukwu Onovo to produce a Special Anti-Robbery Squad officer who had shot dead a 15-year-old boy at his high school. According to the SARS officer, the teen was mistaken for a kidnapper.[13] On 27 July 2010, Sahara Reporters published an extensive editorial report detailing how SARS and other police units had made a profit of ?9.35 billion ($60 million) from roadblocks and extortion within 18 months.[14]

On 3 June 2011, the Nigeria Police Force discovered an attempt by SARS operative Musa Agbu to bomb the Force's headquarters.[15]

Following several reports of human rights violations submitted by members of the public to the office of the Inspector General of Police, on 7 August 2015, the then-Inspector General of Police Solomon Arase announced he would split the SARS unit into two units, an operational unit and an investigations unit, in order to curtail cases of human rights violations.[16] In September 2016, Pulse.ng compiled a report on Nigerian police brutality entitled "Meet SARS, the Police Unit with license to kill", highlighting the brutality and ignorance of the squad's rules of engagement.[17]

A September 2016 report published by Amnesty International detailed extensive torture and detainment without trial. The report detailed SARS forcing confessions, withholding food, and other abuses.[18]

On 10 August 2019, while SARS operatives were on a raid in Ijegun to arrest kidnappers in the area, several shots were fired in a bid to subdue the kidnappers; one of these shots hit a pregnant woman who was reportedly killed instantly. An angry mob was said to have lynched two of the officers on the spot.[19][20][21]

On 21 August 2019, four SARS operatives were arrested and charged with murder after being caught on film manhandling and then shooting to death two suspected phone thieves in broad daylight.[22] The suspected thieves were shot dead after they had already been arrested.[22]

On 5 September 2019, operatives of the Special Anti-Robbery Squad in Lekki, Lagos, allegedly kidnapped, tortured, and robbed Nigerian rapper Ikechukwu Onunaku for no clear reason. According to publications by Punch Nigeria, SARS operatives forced Onunaku to make several ATM withdrawals.[23][24]

Modus operandi[edit]

During its formation, the Special Anti-Robbery Squad was known to operate covertly. SARS operatives were not allowed to wear a police uniform or publicly carry guns or walkie-talkies. They were given unmarked vehicles with sometimes no license plates or private plate numbers during duty.[25]

Reform and disbanding attempts[edit]

2017 End SARS Campaign[edit]

In December 2017, Segun Awosanya spearheaded an online advocacy campaign demanding an end to SARS brutality in the country. The campaign started on social media from the hashtag #EndSARS, created by Twitter user @Letter_to_jack in a post demanding Nigeria's government scrap and end the deployment of SARS. The public responded well to the hashtag with people all over Nigeria posting about their experiences with SARS.[26] The campaign was reported on by international media.[27][28] By mid December, the campaign took to the streets with protests occurring in Abuja.[29]

The Nigeria Police Force endured backlash over comments made by Public Relations Officer Jimoh Moshood, who claimed the campaigners of being "criminals" and "robbers". Moshood also called for the campaigners to come forward so that SARS could investigate them.[30]

During the 8th National Assembly, Nigeria's Senate backed the call for scrapping SARS.[31]

Presidency's attempt to reform SARS[edit]

On 14 August 2018, the Acting President of Nigeria Yemi Osinbajo ordered with immediate effect the "Overhaul" of the controversial police unit SARS following reports of human rights violation. The acting president ordered the Inspector General of Police Ibrahim Kpotun Idris to reform SARS and carry out an independent investigation after "persistent complaints and reports" concerning human rights violations.[32] After the order, the IGP announced that the unit would be renamed the Federal Special Anti-Robbery Squad,[33] a new head of the unit would be appointed, and the provision of human rights desk officers to check reports.[34][35]

Decentralization of SARS[edit]

On 21 January 2019, IGP Mohammed Adamu ordered the immediate decentralization of the Special Anti-Robbery Squad. The SARS unit was centralized from the force headquarters in Abuja since its inception; the IGP also stated that the DIG[disambiguation needed] of Force Criminal Investigations Department and Commissioners of Police in each state would be held accountable for actions of the SARS.[36][37]

2020 End SARS campaign[edit]

Efforts to ban the SARS unit increased in October 2020 after a SARS police officer shot a young Nigerian man in front of the Wetland Hotel in Ughelli, Delta State. Video of the incident started trending on social media, leading to nationwide protests within a few days.[38] The protests quickly expanded from an online hashtag to widespread street protests in a matter of days. Popular Nigerian Twitter influencers Rinnu (@savvy_rinnu), FK (@fkabudu), Kelvin Odanz (@MrOdanz), Dr. Dipo Awojide (@OgbeniDipo), and several others quickly joined in raising awareness of the protests, further giving EndSARS protestors added weight and support.

Within hours after these influencers drew media attention, Nigerian celebrities joined in. Notable ones such as music producer Don Jazzy; singers Runtown, Falz, Wizkid, and Davido; actress Sally Suleiman; comedians Mr Macaroni and Sydney Talker; and others who used their influence to demand for the Federal Government to end SARS and implement police reforms across the country.[39]

Peaceful EndSARS protestors in Abuja, the nation's capital, were attacked, beaten, and chased away by Federal police officers, but protestors returned as they took the protests to the Police Force Headquarters. Several reports on international news outlets including BBC Africa and Al-Jazeera showed Federal police tear-gassing protestors, shooting live ammunition, and using water cannons on them. On October 9 in Ogbomosho in Oyo State, a peaceful protestor named Jimoh Isiaq was shot dead by police officers while engaging in the EndSARS protests. His death at the hands of police officers further increased the anger nationwide as he became a martyr for protesters. Several hashtags including #EndPoliceBrutality and #RememberJimoh trended on Twitter. On October 10, a police station in Ijebu-Ode, South-Western Nigeria, was attacked by protestors angry over the death of Jimoh Isiaq and several others who had died at the hands of the Special Anti-Robbery Squad.

Meanwhile, in Lagos, protestors marched to the Lagos State House of Assembly to demand an end to SARS. Several videos shared on social media showed protestors sleeping on the bare ground with no bed or mat overnight as they camped in front of the House of Assembly in Ikeja. The next morning, an emergency session of the Lagos House of Assembly was held as lawmakers allowed some protestors into the building to observe proceedings. A motion was passed and agreed on by Legislators who voted in favour of the protestors to end SARS and sent the recommendations of the House to the Federal Government. On October 11, the Inspector-General of Police Mohammed Adamu announced the disbanding of the Special Anti Robbery Squad (SARS) on live television and said a new tactical team will be unveiled shortly. However, protests went on as Nigerians believed the announcement was just "audio talk" (Nigerian slang used to describe something that is said but not implemented). The new hashtags #EndSWAT and #SARSMUSTEND went international as protestors called for the new unit to be scrapped as they thought several members of the defunct SARS will be re-integrated into the new unit.

Back in Southern Nigeria, the Rivers State government unconstitutionally placed a ban on all forms of protests in the oil-rich state, asking police to arrest any defaulters. However, on October 13, protestors marched in defiance of the ban, all the way up to the State Government House, where the governor resides. It became one of the protests' most talked about events as Port Harcourt protestors marched in solidarity, some of them naked while singing songs against the police unit SARS.

In Kaduna, Northern Nigeria, protestors marched asking for an end to police brutality and disbandment of SARS. In Abeokuta, Ogun State, and Benin City, Edo State, thousands of Nigerian youths marched in solidarity asking the government to end police brutality. In Benin City, police tear-gassed protestors and arrested some, placing charges of treason and attempted murder on them. However, according to reports on Twitter and media websites, they were later released after the Attorney-General of the State asked the Police Commissioner to let them go, although arrested protestors were asked to come with a surety to sign on their behalf before they would be released.

The EndSARS protests were largely decentralized with no actual leaders, although there were protest organizers in several cities. However, these organizers claim they are not leaders and should be referred to as just protestors.

Protest organizers created WhatsApp groups, fundraised, and supplied protestors on the ground with food, medicine, and other supplies. Legal services were acquired and doctors were deployed on ground to administer first aid to protestors. Protestors had access to ambulance services obtained with funds donated by people in Nigeria and abroad and lawyers went from city to city providing arrested protestors with representation and facilitating bails.

Back in Abuja as the protests gained more momentum and exposure, protestors returned in the thousands to the Police Headquarters and once again were shot at with water cannons and live ammunition. Popular Twitter activist Aisha Yesufu was reportedly beaten by male police officers, and her car was damaged by police trucks chasing protestors in the streets of Abuja. Politicians and top government officials kept mute including presidential hopeful Bola Tinubu in Lagos, as police officers in Surulere shot and killed several protestors, all of whom were participating in peaceful protests. Several young people were injured and their cars damaged, while others were brutalized by police officers in police stations.

In total, eight people including a 10-year-old boy were killed in Ogbomosho, Oyo State, by police bullets while at least three were shot dead in Lagos¡ªincluding an auto mechanic who wasn't part of the protests but was killed by a SARS officer in Lagos and died with his hands in his pockets.

On October 16, Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey unveiled for the first time since the protests started, a new ENDSARS emoji on the social networking platform that carries the colors of the Nigerian flag, whenever the hashtag #EndSARS is added to any tweet, as a sign of support for Nigerian protestors. On the same day, after a week and a half of widespread national protests, Vice President Yemi Osinbajo in a series of Twitter posts told Nigerians he chaired a meeting of 36 state governors and the Minister of the FCT to set up judicial panels of inquiry, "so we can see justice served, and fast". His latest statements come as protestors still occupy streets and remain defiant until their demands are implemented.

The Nigerian Army on October 20 announced the introduction of Operation Crocodile Smile VI, which expands to include cyber warfare exercise, track and counter of negative comments on social media across the country. A move many[who?] see to be targeted at ENDSARS protesters.[40]

In the Lekki Massacre on the night of 20 October 2020, Nigerian Armed Forces shot at EndSARS protesters at the Lekki toll gate in Lagos, Nigeria. The amount of casualties is disputed, with witnesses and Amnesty International saying several people were shot dead while Nigerian authorities claim there were no fatalities but that 25 people were wounded.[41]

Dismantlement of SARS[edit]

On October 4, 2020, Muhammed Adamu, inspector general of police (IGP), announced the Federal Special Anti-Robbery Squad (FSARS) and other tactical squads must stop such operations, including traffic checks, ¡°with immediate effect."[42] On October 11, one week after ceasing operations, Adamu dismantled SARS.[43]

Pending prosecutions[edit]

On October 22, 2020, Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari confirmed in a publicly-aired address that Sars had been dismantled and also accused some members of Sars of committing "acts of excessive force" when the unit was operational.[44] Plans were then put in place to also prosecute some former Sars members for extortion, rape and murder.[45]


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